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The name itself offers a simple definition. Electrical transformers are used to transform electrical energy. How electrical transformers do so is by altering voltage, generally from high to low. Voltage is simply the measurement of electrons, how many or how strong, in the flow. Electricity can then be transported more easily and efficiently over long distances.
While power line electrical transformers are commonly recognized, there are other various types and sizes as well. They range from huge, multi-ton units like those at power plants, to intermediate, such as the type used on electric poles, and others can be quite small. Those used in equipment or appliances in your home or place of business are smaller electrical transformers and there are also tiny ones used in items like microphones and other electronics.
Probably the most common and perhaps the most necessary use of various electrical transformers is the transportation of electricity from power plants to homes and businesses. Because power often has to travel long distances, it is transformed first into a more manageable state. It is then transformed again and again, or “stepped down,” repeatedly as it gets closer to its destination.
When the power leaves the plant, it is usually of high voltage. When it reaches the substation the voltage is lowered. When it reaches a smaller transformer, the type found on top of electric poles, it is stepped down again. It is a continuous process, which repeats until the power is at a usable level.